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|Panadol 500 mg|
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Analgesic-antipyretic. It has analgesic and antipyretic effect. It blocks COX-1 and COX-2 mainly in the CNS, affecting the centers of pain and thermoregulation.
There is practically no anti-inflammatory effect. Does not cause irritation of the mucosa of the stomach and intestines. It has no effect on water-salt metabolism as it does not affect the synthesis of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.
Absorption and distribution
Absorption is high, Cmax is reached after 0.5-2 hours and is 5-20 µg/ml.
Binding to plasma proteins is 15%. It penetrates through the HEB. Less than 1% of the dose of paracetamol taken by a nursing mother penetrates into breast milk. Therapeutically effective plasma concentrations of paracetamol are achieved when administered at a dose of 10-15 mg/kg.
Metabolism and excretion
It is metabolized in liver (90-95%): 80% reacts in conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfates to form inactive metabolites, 17% reacts in hydroxylation to form 8 active metabolites, which conjugate with glutathione to form inactive metabolites. In case of glutathione deficiency these metabolites can block enzyme systems of hepatocytes and cause their necrosis. CYP 2E1 isoenzyme is also involved in the drug metabolism.
T1/2 is 1-4 hours. It is excreted by kidneys as metabolites, mainly conjugates, only 3% unchanged.
Pharmacokinetics in special clinical cases
In elderly patients the drug clearance is decreased and T1/2 is increased.
Contraindications to use
- Children under 6 years of age;
- Hypersensitivity to the drug components.
Caution must be exercised when using the drug in case of renal and hepatic insufficiency, benign hyperbilirubinemia (including Gilbert's syndrome), viral hepatitis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, alcoholic liver damage, alcoholism, elderly age, pregnancy and lactation.
Administration during pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy and lactation should be treated with caution and only under medical supervision.
Administration in case of liver dysfunction
It is recommended to use the drug in case of hepatic insufficiency.
Administration in impaired renal function
Caution should be exercised when using in case of renal failure.
Administration in children
Contraindication: children under 6 years of age.
Administration in elderly patients
Caution should be exercised when using the drug in old age.
Indications of the drug Panadol
- Pain syndrome: headache, migraine, toothache, sore throat, lower back pain, muscle pain, painful menstruation;
- febrile syndrome (as antipyretic): increased body temperature during colds and flu.
The drug is intended to reduce pain at the time of use and has no effect on the progression of the disease.
Adults (including elderly) are prescribed 500 mg-1 g (1-2 tablets) up to 4 times daily, if necessary. The interval between doses is at least 4 hours, a single dose (2 tablets) can be taken up to 4 times (8 tablets) within 24 hours.
Children aged 6-9 years are prescribed 1/2 tablet. 3 to 4 times a day, if necessary. The interval between doses is at least 4 hours. The maximum single dose for children 6-9 years of age is 1/2 tablet (250 mg). (250 mg), the maximum daily dose is 2 tablets. (1 г).
Children aged 9-12 years old are prescribed 1 tablet up to 4 times per day, if necessary. The interval between the doses is at least 4 hours, a single dose (1 tablet) can be taken not more than 4 times (4 tablets) during 24 hours.
It is not recommended to use the drug for more than 5 days as an analgesic and for more than 3 days as antipyretic without physician's prescription and supervision. Increase in the daily dose of the drug or the duration of treatment is possible only under the supervision of a physician.